The science of low carb and keto –
I’ve been following the keto diet for the past few months now. Ever since I began the diet I’ve found it has helped me lose weight. But, as with any diet, there are certain roadblocks that can prevent you from achieving your goals. This post aims to give you a better understanding of what you need to focus on when you’re on a low carb or keto diet.
This week we’re talking about fat. Specifically: why it’s good for our bodies and why some people shy away from it. As a nutritionist, I’m constantly trying to understand why people want to eat less fat and more carbs. But the truth is there’s so much we don’t know about fat and carbs. That’s why I’m writing this blog: to explore the science behind low-carb, keto, and the ketogenic diet.
Low carb diets have become popular for weight loss, but is it the best option? What about long-term health? What happens if you do not keep up the diet? What about metabolic diseases such as metabolic syndrome?. Read more about keto diet research 2020 and let us know what you think.
Low-carb diets are safe in the long run.
The long-term consequences of a low-carb diet have been questioned by several health professionals. All diets may be beneficial and harmful, and any diet can lead to nutritional shortages. However, because carbs are not part of the primary diet, there is no indication of danger in a well-planned and nutritionally balanced low-carb diet.
Bone health is important.
Concerns have been expressed regarding the impact of protein consumption on the body’s acid-base balance and how this may damage bones. There is no evidence to back up this claim. Diet has little effect on the pH of the body since it is carefully controlled.
In terms of bone health, the current meta-analysis, backed by the International Osteoporosis Foundation, states unequivocally that there is no evidence that dietary acids are harmful to bone health. As a result, inadequate dietary protein intake may be a more severe issue in the elderly than excess protein.
The advantages and safety of dietary protein for bone health – an expert consensus study [review article] in Osteoporosis International 2018.
Increased protein consumption is not harmful to bone health and may even be helpful in preventing bone loss, according to a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials and cohort studies:
Dietary protein and bone health: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis from the National Osteoporosis Foundation [moderate evidence], American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2017.
Finally, even when followed for two years, three controlled trials have demonstrated that a low-carb diet is safe for bones:
Long-term effects of a very low-carbohydrate and a low-fat isocaloric diet on bone health in obese people [moderate evidence]. Nutrition 2016.
Weight and metabolic performance after two years on a low-carbohydrate vs low-fat diet: a randomized trial [moderate evidence], Annals of Internal Medicine, 2010.
Efficacy and safety of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet for weight reduction in extremely obese adolescents [moderate evidence], Journal of Pediatrics, 2010.
As demonstrated in a news story about a research that showed an increase in bone turnover indicators after three weeks on the keto diet in highly trained athletes who competed, the aforementioned data is considerably greater than the evidence of negative consequences.
The ketogenic diet has been widely researched in epilepsy patients. They are often prescribed to individuals who do not react to anticonvulsants or who are unable to tolerate their adverse effects.
A comprehensive analysis of 16 trials in people with uncontrolled epilepsy showed that a ketogenic diet was usually well tolerated over time and resulted in a substantial decrease in the frequency of seizures or, in a minority of instances, no seizures at all:
Ketogenic diet for the treatment of refractory epilepsy in adults: Meta-analysis of observational studies [poor evidence]. Epilepsia Open 2018: Ketogenic diet for the treatment of refractory epilepsy in adults: Meta-analysis of observational studies [weak evidence].
The ketogenic diet (including a less restrictive variant known as the modified Atkins diet or MAD) has been proven to be extremely successful in controlling seizures in some, but not all, adolescents and adults with epilepsy in randomized controlled trials:
Epilepsy 2018: A randomized controlled study of a modified Atkins diet in individuals with medication-resistant focal epilepsy [moderate evidence].
A randomized controlled study of the ketogenic diet in refractory pediatric epilepsy [moderate evidence], Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 2017.
Epilepsy Survey 2016: A randomized controlled study evaluated a simpler, modified Atkins diet for parents with reading problems in children with refractory epilepsy [moderate evidence].
Hepatitis is a disease of the liver.
Is it possible to reverse fatty liver disease with a low-carbohydrate diet? In 2017, a group of Swedish scientists published a research in the journal Cell Metabolism that showed the benefits of a low-carb, high-protein diet with no calorie decrease on obese fatty liver disease patients. The goal of the research was to distinguish between the effects of calorie restriction and weight reduction and the effects of carbohydrate restriction.
The effects of carbohydrate restriction on liver fat were reported by lead author Jan Boren of the University of Gothenburg:
We discovered previously undiscovered molecular pathways that resulted in a fast and substantial decrease in liver fat and other cardiometabolic risk markers.
Cellular Metabolism 2017: A thorough knowledge of the fast metabolic effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on human hepatic steatosis [insufficient evidence].
In a recent research, this impact was also demonstrated:
Dietary carbohydrate restriction improves metabolic syndrome without weight reduction [poor evidence], according to JCI Insight 2019.
These trials indicate that weight reduction is not required to improve NAFLD symptoms; carbohydrate restriction seems to be the only way to improve symptoms. While additional study is required, prior studies have indicated that low-carbohydrate and ketogenic diets may help individuals with fatty liver:
Short-term weight loss and triglyceride reduction in the liver: Evidence of metabolic advantage with carbohydrate restriction [poor evidence], American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2011.
Effect of a Spanish ketogenic Mediterranean diet on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot research [insufficient evidence], Journal of Medicinal Food Products, 2011.
Effect of a ketogenic diet on hepatic steatosis and hepatic mitochondrial metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease [non-randomized study, inadequate data]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA, 2020.
In a randomized controlled trial, a Mediterranean keto diet was shown to be more beneficial than a low-fat diet in reducing symptoms of liver fattening.
Journal of Hepatology: A decrease in hepatic fatty degeneration may mediate the favorable benefits of a Mediterranean diet compared to a low-calorie diet [moderate evidence].
Another RCT found that the keto diet is better to conventional dietary guidelines for the treatment of liver fattening and is comparable to 5:2 intermittent fasting.
Treatment of NAFLD with intermittent calorie restriction or a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet – a randomized controlled study [moderate evidence], Journal of Hepatology Reports 2021.
A low-carb diet should be excellent for resolving polycystic ovarian syndrome, given the strong connection between obesity, high insulin levels, and other metabolic issues (PCOS). Insulin levels are regularly and reliably reduced by a low-carb diet. This may mean that low-carb diets can assist with metabolic issues like PCOS.
Despite the lack of long-term quality research and the fact that not all studies are compatible with one another, the majority of the current scientific data is encouraging:
- In a short research published in 2005, 11 women with PCOS were given a six-month treatment of a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. The five women who took part in the research dropped weight, improved their hormonal balance, and had less body hair. Despite prior reproductive issues, two of them got pregnant:
Effect of a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet on polycystic ovarian syndrome: a pilot study [insufficient evidence], Nutrition and Metabolism, 2005.
- In a 2015 study, 24 women with PCOS who followed a diet of about 70 grams of net carbs per day for 12 weeks significantly reduced insulin levels, insulin resistance, TGs, and testosterone, and lost an average of 8.6 kg (19 pounds) at the end of the study:Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy 2015: A low-starch, low-dairy diet is successful in the treatment of obesity and co-morbidities associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) [insufficient evidence].
- In a 2020 research, 14 individuals with PCOS showed substantial reductions in hormone levels and insulin resistance indicators. Effects of a ketogenic diet in obese women with polycystic ovarian syndrome [non-randomized study, poor evidence] Journal of Translational Medicine 2020
- Even a little decrease in carbs (from 55 percent to 41 percent of calories) may result in substantial changes in weight, hormones, and risk factors in women with PCOS, according to studies published in 2006 and 2013:
The significance of diet in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome [poor evidence] Fertility and Sterility 2006: Clinical Endocrinology 2013: [insufficient data] Beneficial metabolic benefits of a low-carb eucaloric diet in women with PCOS.
- Finally, a 2017 review of relevant research found that low-carb diets reduce circulating insulin levels, ameliorate hormonal imbalances, and promote ovulation, all of which increase the likelihood of conception.
Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on hormones and reproductive outcomes in overweight and obese women: a comprehensive analysis [systematic evaluation of randomized and non-randomized studies; limited data base] published in Nutrients in 2017.
In addition to the scientific data shown above, physicians’ clinical experience with carbohydrate-restricted diets indicates that they are an effective therapy for PCOS:
How may a low-carbohydrate diet help with PCOS?
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a kind of irritable bowel syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was investigated in 2009 using a very low-carb diet (less than 20 grams of carbs per day) (IBS). Thirteen people with irritable bowel syndrome and diarrhea were put on a normal American diet for two weeks before switching to a very low carbohydrate diet for four weeks. Ten of the thirteen patients (77%) exhibited substantial improvements, with the extremely low carbohydrate diet decreasing stomach discomfort and diarrhea while also increasing quality of life:
A very low carbohydrate diet improves symptoms and quality of life in people with irritable bowel syndrome and frequent diarrhea [insufficient evidence]. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2009: A very low carbohydrate diet improves symptoms and quality of life in people with irritable bowel syndrome and frequent diarrhea [insufficient evidence].
Many research on low-fat FODMAP diets have been performed in recent years. Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols are all acronyms for fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols. This broad term refers to the short-chain carbs present in a variety of fruits, vegetables, legumes, grains, dairy products, and processed meals. According to at least one research, following a low FODMAP diet relieved the symptoms of 75 percent of individuals with IBS.
Does a low FODMAP diet decrease symptoms associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders? European Journal of Nutrition, 2016. [moderate evidence] Extensive systematic review and meta-analysis
Find out more about IBS and low-carb eating.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a kind of bowel illness that
According to anecdotal data, a low-carb or low-carb paleo diet may help those with inflammatory bowel disorders including Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis.
To our knowledge, no controlled studies have been conducted to see whether carbohydrate restriction may help with the progression of inflammatory bowel disease. However, the study indicates that this is an area where more work needs to be done:
Case Reports and Images: An International Journal 2016: A paleolithic ketogenic diet effectively cured Crohn’s illness [poor proof].
Heartburn / Gastroesophageal reflux
Low-carb diets seem to be a viable therapy for GERD in at least two trials.
The participants’ esophageal pH was evaluated before and after following a ketogenic diet comprising fewer than 20 grams of carbs per day for six days in a small research of eight obese individuals with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The second test revealed that the esophageal pH had normalized, suggesting a less acidic environment in the esophagus. Participants also reported relief from chest burning and pain, as well as belching and other reflux symptoms.
A very low carbohydrate diet helps gastroesophageal reflux illness and associated symptoms [insufficient evidence], according to Digestive Diseases and Sciences (2006).
Another research examined 42 overweight women with GERD for 16 weeks on a low-carb, high-fat diet. In the tenth year. All of the women’s GERD symptoms were vanished by the end of the second week, and they could discontinue using antacids.
Dietary carbohydrate consumption, insulin resistance, and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a pilot research in obese European and African-American women [insufficient data]. Food Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2016:
Is it feasible to lessen, if not eradicate, migraines by lowering your carbohydrate intake? This seems to be the case based on research and anecdotal data. At least two studies have shown that carbohydrate restriction may assist migraineurs thus far:
Find out more about migraines and low-carb eating plans.
A low-carb diet may be helpful for certain individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and associated comorbidities including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette’s syndrome, according to limited data from animal studies and case reports.
Alzheimer’s disease is a kind of dementia.
People with Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive impairment who followed a ketogenic diet improved their memory, quality of life, and daily activities in two randomized controlled trials:
randomized cross-over study of the modified ketogenic diet in Alzheimer’s disease [moderate evidence]. Alzheimer’s Disease Research and Treatment 2021:
Dietary ketosis improves memory in mild cognitive impairment [moderate evidence], according to Neurobiology of Aging (2012).
A increasing number of case reports suggest that a low-carbohydrate diet may be beneficial in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD):
Reversal of cognitive deterioration in Alzheimer’s disease [limited evidence] in Aging 2016.
Alzheimer’s and dementia: Is APOE 4 the key to insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and mental fog? [Very flimsy evidence] Case study More
Non-diabetics with high or normal blood sugar levels have been linked to dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in certain studies. The ketogenic diet may decrease the chance of acquiring certain illnesses by lowering blood sugar levels. This research investigates the following relationship:
Glucose levels with dementia risk [extremely poor evidence], New England Journal of Medicine, 2013.
Ketones are an alternate fuel source for the brain on a ketogenic diet, which may be helpful for individuals with dementia or other cognitive issues. Patients with Alzheimer’s disease or cognitive impairment have been demonstrated in clinical trials to have the same capacity to utilize ketones as healthy old people’s brains, despite their inability to use glucose efficiently:
New York Academy of Sciences Annals 2016: Can ketones compensate for the brain’s reduced glucose absorption as it ages? Implications for Alzheimer’s disease risk and therapy [review article].
Parkinson’s disease is a neurological disorder that affects people.
People with Parkinson’s disease who followed a ketogenic diet improved their symptoms more than those who followed a low-calorie diet, according to an eight-week RCT:
Low-fat diet and ketogenic diet in Parkinson’s disease: a pilot randomized controlled study [moderate evidence]. Movement Disorders 2018:
A tiny pilot study of five individuals with Parkinson’s disease found that adopting a ketogenic diet improved their symptoms. Because there was no control group, the possibility of a placebo effect cannot be ruled out:
Treatment of Parkinson’s disease with diet-induced hyperketonemia: a feasibility study [poor evidence]. Neurology, 2005.
Exogenous ketone esters increased exercise duration by 24% in Parkinson’s disease patients in one RCT, indicating that ketones may have metabolic advantages.
A ketone ester drink improves endurance in Parkinson’s illness [randomized trial; moderate evidence]. Frontiers in Neuroscience 2020:
There hasn’t been much written in this field, apart from a few case studies.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease that affects people
High-quality evidence on the advantages of carbohydrate restriction in multiple sclerosis (MS) is very scarce, much as it is in Parkinson’s disease studies. There have been several recent clinical studies, in addition to occasional favorable anecdotal accounts.
According to a 2015 research, MS patients who followed a ketogenic diet or fasted for several days improved their quality of life and TG levels significantly:
Ketogenic diet and extended fasting enhance health-related quality of life and lipid profiles in multiple sclerosis – a randomized controlled study [moderate evidence], European Committee for the Treatment and Research of Multiple Sclerosis, 2015.
After 6 months on the ketogenic diet, a small pilot trial of 20 individuals with relapsing-remitting MS found no disease progression. Although these are early findings that need to be confirmed in bigger trials, they suggest that a ketogenic diet may be useful in the treatment of MS:
Pilot trial of the ketogenic diet in relapsing-remitting MS [uncontrolled research; very poor evidence]. Neurology: Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation 2019:
Fibromyalgia may be linked to insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and type 2 diabetes, according to preliminary data. Low-carb diets are typically helpful in treating these illnesses, therefore they may help fibromyalgia sufferers. Continue reading
Is insulin resistance a cause of fibromyalgia? PloS ONE: Is insulin resistance a cause of fibromyalgia? [Very flimsy evidence] Preliminary Report
Fasting on a regular basis
People often combine a low-carb diet with intermittent fasting for a variety of reasons, including convenience, weight reduction efficacy, and diabetes reversal.
16:8, which implies you fast for 16 hours a day and eat your full daily food intake in an eight-hour period, is a popular variant of intermittent fasting, often known as timed fasting if it lasts shorter than 24 hours. This is often accomplished by missing breakfast. It may sometimes help with weight loss.
Effects of breakfast on weight and energy intake: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials [good evidence], British Medical Journal, 2019.
Intermittent fasting seems to be a viable option for long-term calorie restriction:
Intermittent fasting versus daily calorie restriction for the prevention of type 2 diabetes: a review of results from human studies [review article]. Translational Research 2014: Intermittent fasting versus daily calorie restriction for the prevention of type 2 diabetes: a review of results from human studies [review article].
Furthermore, 14 hours of fasting over the course of 12 weeks seems to be adequate to increase metabolism substantially.
In individuals with metabolic syndrome, temporary food restriction for 10 hours decreases weight, blood pressure, and atherogenic lipids [observational research, poor evidence].
Fasting for 16 hours a day enhanced weight reduction and metabolic health in a six-week trial of adults over 60.
Effect of a six-week intermittent fasting program on body composition in women over 60 years [randomized trial; moderate evidence]. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2020.
Learn more about the benefits of intermittent fasting.
The environment and the low-carb diet
Because of worries about the environmental effect of meat production, a low-carb diet is often characterized as ecologically unsustainable. However, this apprehension may be unwarranted.
To begin with, low-carb and keto diets have moderate protein levels; they are not high-protein diets. If calories from carbs stay low, the proportion of calories from protein may rise, but this does not always imply an increase in absolute protein or meat consumption. The suggested protein consumption for carbohydrate-restricted diets is well within the acceptable macronutrient distribution limits established by the US government (AMDRs). You may even have a vegetarian or vegan diet that is low in carbohydrates.
Second, meat production has a broad range of environmental effects. Even beef production, which is often seen as the least ecologically friendly, may be managed in a sustainable manner.
According to a 2018 research, well kept livestock may be carbon neutral or even negative, which means that more carbon is retained in the soil than is emitted into the atmosphere:
Effect of soil carbon sequestration on life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from cattle feedlots in the Midwest of the United States [insufficient evidence]. Farming Systems 2018:
Part 1 of the Green Keto Carnivore series can be found here.
Health benefits of red meat
We often hear about the dangers of red meat on our health. These assertions, however, are based only on shaky nutrition epidemiology studies with poor statistical associations and a substantial risk of confounding and bias. When examined in intervention studies, the majority of these epidemiological results turn out to be erroneous.
The GRADE method was recently used to assess the level of evidence in a review of RCTs comparing lower and greater red meat intake. Limiting red meat intake has little or no impact on the development of heart disease and cancer, according to the scientists.
Effect of reduced or greater red meat intake on cardiometabolic outcomes and cancer: Systematic analysis of randomized trials, Annals of Internal Medicine, 2019. Strong evidence] from a systematic evaluation of randomized trials.
Data from observational studies do not support dietary recommendations to reduce red meat intake, according to the same group of experts.
Reducing red and processed meat intake and cancer mortality and incidence: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies, Annals of Internal Medicine, 2019. Insufficient evidence from a meta-analysis of cohort studies].
It’s no surprise, however, that intervention studies have shown no evidence that red meat promotes cancer. The Polyp Prevention Trial, for example, compared a low-fat, low-meat diet against a regular diet for 8 years to determine whether it might prevent colon cancer. Despite the fact that the experimental group’s diet was substantially altered, the incidence of cancer recurrence did not reduce.
The women’s health program is another example. For the next eight years, half of the 49,000 women were randomly allocated to a low-calorie diet with substantially less red meat. There was no decrease in the number of people diagnosed with colorectal cancer (moreover, there was a tendency towards a slight increase in risk in the intervention group).
Read more about Is Red Guide Meat Healthy?
What we know and don’t know about nutrition and cancer
Health and salt
The American Heart Association advises that everyone restrict their sodium consumption to 1,500 mg per day, or approximately 3/4 teaspoon of salt, to avoid heart disease.
However, due to higher renal losses, salt needs may rise in individuals on a low-carbohydrate diet.
People on a low-carb diet are generally not advised to restrict their salt consumption because of this increased requirement. Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of this approach for these individuals, many of whom are African-Americans or persons with diabetes, chronic renal disease, or heart disease, for whom extremely low sodium diets had previously been advised.
While a very low sodium diet may be helpful for some individuals who are also on a high carbohydrate diet, it’s difficult to say if this is a legitimate worry for people who are on a low carbohydrate diet, since the reasons for substantial salt restriction are mixed for everyone.
In reality, the American Institute of Medicine stated in a 2013 study that reducing sodium to dangerously low levels is not advised for the general public. The study also mentions that existing scientific data suggests that reduced salt intake has significant health consequences in individuals with diabetes, chronic renal disease, and heart disease.
Furthermore, a 2014 Cochrane RCT review that looked at strategies to reduce sodium consumption found little evidence for dietary advice to do so:
Reducing dietary salt to prevent cardiovascular disease [systematic review of RCTs; good evidence], Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2014.
In contrast, another RCT study showed that lowering salt consumption increases life expectancy and decreases cardiovascular mortality:
Effects of dietary supplements and nutritional treatments on cardiovascular performance: A general overview and evidence map [systematic review of RCTs; good evidence]. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2019.
Because of the conflicting evidence, it’s difficult to draw solid conclusions or make firm recommendations for the general public to decrease their salt consumption substantially.
In addition to the two findings stated above, seven observational studies have cast doubt on the advice to restrict salt intake to extremely low levels for the general population, finding no link between very low salt consumption and health benefits or life expectancy.
Although these studies do not prove a link, they do indicate that a sodium consumption of less than 3,500 mg per day is linked to a lower life expectancy, particularly in the elderly.
- Sodium consumption, life expectancy, and all-cause death [extremely poor evidence], European Journal of Cardiology 2020.
- Association between sodium excretion and cardiovascular disease and death in the elderly: a cohort study [extremely poor evidence] Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2018: Lower salt consumption was linked to a shorter life expectancy in this research of older people.
- Sodium excretion and the risk of cardiovascular events in individuals with chronic renal disease [very poor evidence], Journal of the American Medical Association, 2016. In this research, individuals with mild to moderate renal impairment who consumed more than 4000 mg of salt per day had a higher risk of cardiovascular events. Enhanced salt consumption may be more sensitive in those with renal disease, although extremely low salt intake has not been linked to increased health benefits.
- Lancet 2016: The association of urinary sodium excretion with cardiovascular events in individuals with and without hypertension: a pooled analysis of data from four studies [very weak evidence] This study firstly shows that consumption of more than 7000 mg of sodium per day is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and premature death in hypertensive individuals. In contrast, consumption of less than 3000 mg of sodium per day was associated with an increased risk in both those with normal blood pressure and those with hypertension.
- Fatal and nonfatal effects, incidence of hypertension, and variations in blood pressure in connection to urine sodium excretion [extremely poor evidence] published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2011. Overall, this research indicates that a reduced salt consumption is linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease mortality.
- Salt consumption with mortality in type 2 diabetes patients [poor evidence] (Diabetes Care, 2011). Higher salt consumption was linked to a lower risk of early mortality from all causes and death from heart disease in a group of individuals with type 2 diabetes.
- Diabetes Care 2011: Association between dietary salt consumption, end-stage renal disease, and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes patients [poor evidence] The greatest and lowest salt intakes were linked to higher mortality in individuals with type 1 diabetes in this research. Furthermore, individuals who consumed the least salt had the greatest chance of getting end-stage renal disease.
- Low urine sodium intake is linked to an increased risk of myocardial infarction in hypertensive males [poor evidence] in 1995. Low sodium consumption is linked to an increased risk of myocardial infarction in males with hypertension, as the study’s title implies. This impact was more pronounced in males over the age of 55.
A comprehensive overview of salt
Find out more about salt, electrolytes, and low-carb diets.
Low-carb diet science from outside sources
Virta Health has a comprehensive collection of low-carb research.
Randomized controlled studies comparing low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets have been conducted by the UK Public Health Collaboration.
Low-carbohydrate diet science
Dr. William Yancey, a researcher who investigates the effects of low-carb diets, discusses the science behind them.
So what does all this mean for those of us on the low carb and ketogenic diet? Should we be looking to cut carbs and increase fats? Maybe we should be keeping it simple and eating lots of meat and fish? Or should we be avoiding carbs altogether and living on protein and fat?. Read more about low-carb vs keto which is better and let us know what you think.
Frequently Asked Questions
Does Low Carb work as well as keto?
Low carb is a diet that has been shown to be effective in weight loss. Ketogenic diets are also effective, but they require more time and effort to maintain.
What is the science behind a low carb diet?
A low carb diet is a diet that limits the amount of carbohydrates consumed. It has been shown to have many health benefits, such as weight loss and improved cholesterol levels.
Is there any science behind keto?
There is no science behind keto.
This article broadly covered the following related topics:
- low carb diet
- keto diet menu
- is keto safe long term
- ketogenic diet research 2017
- science of ketogenic diet